在德勤的艺术 & 2021年财务报告, 艾德里安·埃利斯 is featured as an Expert Voice writing on new business models in the cultural sector, 为什么谈论的比行动的多, 为什么这很重要. 下载 艺术 & 2021年财务报告. 见第171页说得多,做得少... 

每当文化部门-博物馆, 表演艺术中心, 音乐厅, 管弦乐队, 剧院公司和类似的公司——经历了财政困难, 人们通常会谈论对新业务模式的需求. This is prompted both by the reality that new sources of income are needed if the sector is to continue in its old ways , 金融再造的言论可能会对慈善机构和政府资助者产生泻药效应,否则他们对“加倍”对问题资产的承诺持谨慎态度. Supporting ‘new business models’ offers them the possibility of an exit strategy, 为该行业提供更广泛的“教训”, and of branding that associates their financial support with innovative thinking.

But new business models—transformational ways of arranging assets to generate new sources of income, 显著增加现有的项目, or to transform the cost base of an organization—are relatively rare in the non-profit cultural sector. 本文探讨了其中的原因,并提出了一些前进的方法.


文化领域缺乏商业创新最明显的原因是,失败往往会受到惩罚——就声誉而言, 职业发展, 等. ——比成功得到的奖励更有力、更公开, 这种不对称形成了一种系统性的偏向 现状. 非营利组织的结构——笨拙的非执行董事会, restrictive regulatory frameworks that are the corollary of their tax privileges, 对“无关业务收入”的不利税收影响, and pay structures that cannot easily accommodate financial incentives—all push in the same fiscally conservative direction.

第二个原因是,文化机构很少有财力为商业发展建立风险资本储备,而它们更常见的做法是为艺术发展建立风险资本储备. Their balance sheets are unable to support investment without ‘betting the house’. 但任何需要它们获得第三方资金的潜在举措在内部往往被视为“挤出”了用于其他被认为不那么投机、更紧迫的目的的潜在资金. 因此,风险资本对企业发展的影响非常明显 只有 可用于此目的, which is why funders interested in encouraging innovation often create clearly earmarked sources of funding that are not fungible.

A third contributory factor is the priority that has been afforded to capital projects over the past few decades. 这使得该行业拥有较高的固定成本基础, 无论是房地产行业还是工会成员, 在许多其他部门, 从出版到出租车再到音乐制作, 推动了技术驱动的去中介化议程,并寻求享受低管理费用带来的灵活性. We, 与此同时, tend to see an expanded fixed cost base as synonymous with growth—and growth as synonymous with impact.

最后, 当然, cultural executives are often conservative by both instinct and training— much of the sector’s 存在的理由 毕竟,是保护有形和无形的文化资产吗. This fosters a particular cast of mind and disposition that is suspicious of gratuitous change.

由于这些原因, cultural organizations’ responses to severe financial challenges often tend to be political in nature—i.e. 专注于游说资源来支持 现状而不是 经济—i.e. 寻求重新设计业务模型以适应变化的条件. Where an organization is too big or too important to fail, this is a wholly rational strategy. Countless memoirs of arts leaders recount with satisfaction how they have lobbied governments and courted donors; while for the same reason numerous advocacy reports attempt to map the instrumental benefits of the arts on health and wellbeing, 社会凝聚力, 还有夜间经济.

There are however grounds for thinking that political responses may have diminishing returns. 政治担保的文化机构的范围正在缩小,因为它们经历了围绕归还的多重合法性危机, 多样性, 挑战资金来源, 就业和投资策略, 随着对慈善和公共资源的替代呼吁的增加. At the same time, the overall financial demands of the sector have grown with its physical expansion.

许多有组织的慈善事业正在远离文化组织的支持,而不是他们在解决特定社会问题方面的贡献. 美国基金会已采用“遗产机构”一词来描述在其资金组合中代表历史承诺、而非当前优先事项的文化组织. 在美国,个人的捐赠比基金会的支持要多, 后者在思想领导力和影响力方面引起了共鸣. Emergency public sector support for cultural organizations—especially in the EU—has been generous during the pandemic, but this resurrection of counter-cyclical neo-Keynesian 经济 policy will inevitably be reigned back. 紧急资金是储备而不是流动.

The cultural sector is therefore emerging from COVID-19 with lots of talk of the need for new business models, 但不行动. 数字枢轴就是一个很好的例子. 在疫情最严重的时候被切断了与现场观众的bat365官网登录, arts organizations moved content online to retain—and expand—their contact with audiences. 结果是显著的, and it probably represents a lasting adjustment to the programming agendas of many institutions. 但数字捕捉和传播需要在技术和设备上进行新的投资,而这种艺术和技术创新几乎都没有配套的商业模式——内容大多是免费和免费的, 在那里不, 收入流通常是贫乏的. 这种模式在规划上令人兴奋,但在财务上不可持续.


All this suggests a sector that may not be ideally positioned for the changes in the wider operating environment that it is facing. 这些都是强大的. 西方已经进入了一个可能延长的快速发展时期, discontinuous and unpredictable change with a now well-rehearsed catalogue of drivers, 其中大多数都抵制技术官僚的解决方案. 这些包括:

  • 低水平流行病及其对国际旅行的影响, 公共支出优先级, 以及社会行为模式;
  • 气候危机对供应链的加速影响, 迁移模式, 内乱, 因此,为优先事项提供资金;
  • 代议制民主在道德和功能上都是一种优越的治理模式,随着这种共识的侵蚀,政治动荡加剧, in the process deepening divisions around the appropriate place of social and racial equity on civic and cultural agendas;
  • 技术推动的劳动力市场和休闲时间的变化.g. 人工智能对自动化的影响, 数字商务对商业街和城镇广场等的影响.); and
  • 社交媒体关注的影响,尤其是“数字蜂拥” 在其他事物之外 董事会成员财富来源的合法性, 赞助商与采掘业的关系, 以及机构捐赠的适当组成,以及随后对董事会det365首页和来自历史上重要来源的财政支持的胃口冷却.

Each of these has a clear potential impact on the business model of cultural organizations. 所有这些动荡的简称, 由美国陆军战争学院在20世纪80年代发明, 是VUCA-Volatility, 不确定性, 复杂性, 和歧义. And the consensus is that the appropriate strategic response to a VUCA environment is to foster optionality, 弹性, 以及敏捷响应的组织文化. 如果你不知道即将发生什么, 然后你就会希望自己有更多的选择, 要有一种商业模式和组织文化,能够帮助你安然度过下一轮动荡,而不是一成不变地适应当前环境.


对违约的预测意味着,面对银行业没有充分准备应对的挑战,将有一段时间进行紧缩, with programmatic vigor sapped by the high fixed cost base that we have created for ourselves. 这将伴随着不情愿的整合, 对金融挑战日益尖锐的“政治”回应, and with artistic and operational innovation mostly bubbling up outside the administrative apparatus of established, 而是负担过重的机构——这是一段熊彼特式创造性破坏的时期,但这段时期是以缓慢的方式结束的,因为缺乏一个整合的资本市场,使得低效率长期存在. 可以合理地预见到一些关闭, but more common will be institutions for which the agendas subtly shift from their stated mission, 以公共利益为基础, 组织的生存. det365首页已经在歌剧领域看到了这一点, 在小, lighter companies dominate the creative agenda and traditional behemoths struggle to keep the show on the road.

这种情况将对社会和经济造成巨大损失, det365首页需要真正探索与使命一致的新商业模式,并显著增加新的收入来源或大幅削减成本. 但这首先需要一个处方来解决 组织 确定备选业务模式选项之前的障碍.

Stakeholders—boards and funders—need to address explicitly the incentives to innovation and support informed risk-taking and its occasional failure; performance assessment needs to be more mature and objective and to reflect progress toward compelling strategic goals; arms-length enterprise subsidiaries with greater entrepreneurial freedoms should be the norm; and the unthinking linking of physical expansion to increased impact should be challenged.

探索未来选择和空想资本项目的通常背景是仪式性的“战略规划”。. 这需要彻底反思. 非营利文化组织的战略规划往往提供很少的机会进行实质性的重新审视,因为它的设计是产生“面向外部的”修辞文件, 充满了旋转和美德信号. 从上述意义上讲,这些计划本质上是“政治”的. And they emphasize concrete – sometimes literally so – ambitions that can have simple eye-catching metrics attached to them. 更轻接触的规划过程具有更强的分析严谨性,并关注组织对变更的操作环境的适应性,这是迫切需要的. 对劳动收入的日益依赖也开始使组织从强制性慈善中解放出来,在这种慈善中,资助者的战略目标高于组织自身的目标.

以及模型本身? 文化机构能够而且确实对地方和区域经济产生变革性影响——这也是最近投资的基本原理. But these benefits are externalities that the generating institutions are unable to capture. Countless new arts buildings for example have made many adjacent property developers wealthier, but this is not incorporated into their business model as the capital gains cannot be captured. 如果有人在寻找新的资金来源, then there are devices outside the cultural sector that have been developed to capture these externalities—tax credits, 太, 特殊评估区. They require collaboration between the public and private sector and need to be baked into strategies early, 但它们确实提供了大量的可能性.

det365首页劳动收入, it is obvious that the conventional sources of earned income – admission charges, 食品和饮料, 自身的零售, rentals – are unlikely to have the growth potential to transform the business model. 他们也, 批判性的, not best viewed from a purely commercial perspective as there is a mission-related component to their pricing and management, 与扩大访问渠道和加强游客体验有关.

因此,最有希望获得可观收入的领域是与文化机构的品牌和专业知识专注于特定资产的合作.g. 艺术酒店, 品牌的在线零售, consultancy— and pursued in a framework that separates it from the core business. 在邻近地区增加劳动收入所需的技能很难得到保障和利用,而且与博物馆的核心技能相去很远. 但是,30年前,人们也可以这样说筹款.


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